Date: 2019-06-29 13:52:16
Before we get into what is Article 370, let's first recall the situation during India's independence (you can skip to para 3 if you already know about the history behind Article 370). When India and Pakistan parted ways there were some princely states which did not join either India or Pakistan, these states wanted to stay independent and one such state was Jammu and Kashmir.
The then Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh, neglected to stay with either of the two countries and choose to remain neutral between the successor dominions of India and Pakistan. However, after few days, Pakistan launched a sudden attack on the J&K state, so that Hari Singh should not be able to create an independent state. By this sudden attack, Maharaja Hari Singh asked India for help, which India did responded and offered him the best of the help. By this gesture, Hari Singh agreed to make J&K to be the part of India and that's how Jammu and Kashmir joined the Dominion of India. On 26 October 1947, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession.
Although, instead of improving the situation, the matter got worse, the war type of situations raised between India and Pakistan, which forced India to take the matter to the United Nations Security Council under Article 35. You can read it here.
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution is a 'Temporary Provision' which grants Jammu & Kashmir some special autonomous status.
"Relationship of the State with the Union of India:- The State of Jammu and Kashmir is and shall be an integral part of the Union of India."
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